image/svg+xmlOpen space Transpor - tation Buildings Built - up area Urban open space Building stock, building types Provisioning ÖSL Regulating ÖSL Cultural ÖSL Level of building over , imperviousness Ratios of land Density of population , settlement , jobs Provision, accessibility , influence Landscape fragmentation , habitat connectivity Danger of floodings Potential d amage of floodings Types of settlement structure Potential of empty sites , urban greening , green volume Fragmentation and cover of grazing land and forests Density of transport network Land productivity Agricultural , forestry earning capacity Material stock Urban sprawl Protected areas Relief, soil , waterbodies Hemeroby Sustainable energy generation Land use / ground cover Potentials / quality Structures Ressources / value creation Population related Ecosystem Services (ÖSL) Environmental risks Features, closeness and protection of the nature Topics of the Monitor of Settlement and Open Space Development

The focus of the IOER Monitor and its system of indicators is to provide spatial information describing the condition (including the quality), the potentials, the environmental risks and the development of settlements, specifically the building stock, open spaces, the roadway network and the landscape quality.

According to the DPSIR-concept of the European Environment Agency particular attention is paid to the “state” (ratios of land usage, density of transport network, land productivity) as well as “pressure” (such as fragmentation, Zersiedlung (splintering) and land consumption) and remedial measures (“response” in particular ratios of protected areas).

Indicator values are calculated by evaluating land use data (land ratios), their relation to socio-economic data (number of residents and workplaces, GDP) as well as environmental data (soils, protected areas, etc.). Criteria for the selection of indicators are: data is available for the entire country and for various topics of interest; spatial comparison is enabled (homogeneous base data); temporal comparison is enabled (permanent availability of base data).

The IOER Monitor provides aggregate information to the INSPIRE topics of transport networks, waterway networks, protected areas (Annex 1), ground cover (Annex 2) as well as buildings, land usage, population distribution, protected areas, areas with natural risks (Annex 3). 

Categories and Indicators

The following list shows all Indicators available in the IOER Monitor, sorted within their categories known from the mapviewer. Datasheets, geo services (WMS, WCS, WFS) and a link to display the map directly can also be found there.

For information about indicator calculation and the term "indicator" itself, please see the glossary entry.



Indicators in these categories relate settlement space to the reference area or parts thereof (e. g. industrial, commercial space to settlement space). Settlement space is one part of the reference area, which is constituted (without overlapping) of settlement space, open space and transportation space. Settlement space is made up of built-up area and urban open space (sports, leisure and recreation area).

In contrast to official land use statistics mining area and dump sites are not dedicated to settlement area but to open space.

Urban Sprawl


Open space

Indicators of this category relate open spaces to the reference area, so that open space can be broken down into various categories of use. Open space is a part of the reference space, which is exhaustively constituted (without overlapping) of settlement space, open space and transportation space.

Components of open space are agricultural areas, forest areas (incl. copses), uncultivated, usually near-natural areas as well as expanses of water. Mining and dump sites are also categorized as open space rather than settlement space (as is the practice of public survey agencies) because such sites are usually unsealed, vegetation on dump sites develops without human intervention and typical settlement functions such as living, working and relaxation are absent.


Indicators for this category relate official estimates of population at the municipal level to selected forms of land use, thereby enabling evaluation of the land-use type per citizen (e.g. urban open space) and efficiency (e.g. population density in settlements).


Indicators for this category relate transportation space or transport route lengths to the reference area or parts thereof (e.g. ratio of transportation area to built-up area and traffic area), thereby providing information on the transportation infrastructure (incl. the transport network). Transportation is one component of the reference area, which is constituted (with no overlapping) of settlement space, open space and transportation space. Alongside sealed land for transportation, this category also includes traffic accompanying areas of greenery in the direct neighbourhood; unsealed pathways are ignored. In contrast to ATKIS Basis-DLM, harbour basins, navigable waterways, lakes and seas are not classified as transportation areas but as expanses of water and thus forms of open space. Aviation areas are constituted of runways only.

Landscape and nature protection

Indicators for this category relate the non-overlapping proportion of protected areas to the reference area. Thus landscape protection is explicitly acknowledged for the first time. In contrast to other systems (e.g. the National Strategy for Biological Diversity (NBS)), the more strict indicator "nature and species protection" also incorporates European protected areas (Natura2000 areas).

Ecosystem Services

The category Ecosystem Services (ÖSL) includes indicators which have a contribution (services) in ecosystems for the welfare of the society. The distinction has been made based on regulatory, supply and cultural achievements. The indicators can describe different sizes such as the potential of the nature for provision of Ecosystem Services or the demand as well as the need of Ecosystem Services.

Landscape quality

In the first part this category deals with the fragmentation of interlinked open spaces as well as individual habitats (forest) by linear infrastructure (particularly roads and railways) and closed settlement bodies (urbanized areas of 5 ha and above). Elements causing such fragmentation are regional roads (district roads and above) as well as all multi-track and single track electrified stretches of railway. Traffic volumes are not considered (in contrast to other systems) as relevant data is not available for all areas and time frames. The methodology of analyzing landscape fragmentation adopted by the IOER Monitor differs from other systems of indicators (e.g. State Initiative Core Indicators (LIKI) or National Strategy for Biological Diversity (NBS)) in regard to the precision of base data (ATKIS Basis-DLM at scale 1:25,000 rather than 1:250,000), the classification of roadways and the inclusion of settlements. Additional ratios are calculated to supplement those offered by current indicator systems (such as NBS).

In the second part of this category you can find indicators on hemeroby as an inverse measurement of nearness to nature (based on a 7-step classification).




Material stock